"A clever person solves a problem. A wise person avoids it." Albert Einstein
Our HW team is focused on RF design in the range from DC to microwaves. Our work covers all design phases starting from a concept through implementation, PCB design, prototyping, and testing up to mass production support.
Product requirements are analyzed for feasibility. The concept phase starts with basic architecture selection. The concept is evaluated according to the requirements. If there are more options, the most optimal one is finally chosen. Such an optimization is done in relation to used components and technologies.
Based on the type of the product, the architectural design can cover analog HW, digital HW, digital signal processing, and software.
Simulations and/or measurements are always performed in order to minimize risks for next phase – implementation. We usually model the optimal dynamic range for each application by creating a tailored level diagram specific for such an application.
Among other parameters, mixing spurious are evaluated for RF front-end concepts, signal processing is evaluated to specify requirements for FPGA and DSP resources, CPU and memory requirements are evaluated with respect to needs of control circuitry, and appropriate interfaces are defined (e.g. type of connectors, type of signals, and pins assignment).
Key components may be specified, if required. A so-called Main Definition Report is the result of the whole phase.
Detailed schematics according to the specified architecture are worked out. The component database is extended with new components. For the schematics creation, Orcad Capture or Altium Designer are the most often used tools. Detailed simulations are provided in order to verify the design (MATLAB, Mathcad, PSpice, MW Office, Agilent Genesys, etc.).
Partial circuits are tested on demo boards or specially designed prototyping boards.
Bill of materials is provided for cost calculation and material purchasing. MTBF stress data are collected.
Our experience includes synthesizers and various types of oscillators (built from crystals, discrete components or in the micro strip technology), frequency dividers, PLL chips in integer and fractional modes, etc.
We are familiar with Teflon and FR4 substrates. Off course, we are able to select a wide range of analog circuits, local power supplies, A/D and D/A converters, and digital interfaces.
In order to prevent unwanted spurious, noise or crosstalk, we can design appropriate frequency filters with a strong focus on the best result/cost ratio.
High quality of our implementation outputs is constantly ensured by technical reviews and design checklists.
Schematics are subject to the design review prior to the next step – PCB layout.
We are experts with the PCB layout tools Cadence Allegro and Altium.
At the beginning of the design, missing component footprints are added to the component database and the PCB stackup is defined.
Components to Board Ratio (CBR) is checked on the basis on the available component footprints and the planned board outline.
Import of re-used blocks can speed up the placement and routing.
A board is subject of the first design review as soon as the placement is finished.
Special care for optimal routing, grounding and compliance with given impedances, is a part of abilities of the experienced PCB designers. In case of the high speed digital circuitry, we are paying attention routing of differential pairs, matched net lengths etc. Optimization of EMC/EMI behavior and the signal integrity on lines, and also compliance with PCB manufacturing technology requirements are parts of the PCB design as well. The PCB design results in so-called Gerber and/or ODB++ data for the production.
Optimal PCB assemblies have to be chosen according the requirements.
If you have no possibility of prototype manufacturing, we can provide prototype assembly together with our partners.
HW is debugged on the prototype boards. As soon as the HW is basically working, the FPGA content is uploaded and the necessary firmware is installed to the board. In this step HW parameters are evaluated, often using the special test software.
Designed products have to be verified for compliancy with specifications of international standards concerning EMC, mechanical stability and environmental limits.
We are able to create documentation required by the corresponding authorities to obtain product conformance certificates.
We can support your manufacturing facility in every step of product lifetime.
As an example, we can support you in testing (board level, module level, final product test), cost optimization, component set, etc.